Image of a spinning marijuana leaf.

Since April 20, 2003

photo of Tod Mikuriya

Dr. Mikuriya is one of the world's foremost authorities on the uses of medical cannabis. He has few peers in his clinical knowledge of cannabis' therapeutic uses, efficacy, history, culture, policies, routes of administration and potential for abuse.

Medicinal Uses of Cannabis - Tod H. Mikuriya

Ignorance and mental health issues. - by Tod H. Mikuriya, 11 Jun 2006

Why Judges Shouldn't Have Control Over Everything - Cannabis is a First-Line Treatment for Childhood Mental Disorders, by Tod H. Mikuriya, 8 Jul 06.

Marijuana Medical Papers: 1839- 1972 - Edited by Tod H. Mikuriya, M.D.

The Forbidden

The Use of Cannabis as a Mood Stablizer in Bi-Polar Disorder - Lester Grinspoon, Associate Profesor, Harvard School of Medicine

Marijuana and the Treatment of an 8-year-old Child with Multiple Psychiatric Diagnoses - Debbie Jeffries.

Jeffrey's Journey is a determined Mother's journal of what she had to go through in the battle to be able to treat her son with medical marijuana

Dr. Lester
marijuana uses

Mr. X, by Carl Sagan. This account was written in 1969 for publication in Marihuana Reconsidered (1971). Sagan was in his mid-thirties at that time. He continued to use cannabis for the rest of his life.

To Smoke or not to Smoke: A Cannabis Odyssey - by Lester Grinspoon, MD

The American
Alliance for
Medical Cannabis

Dr. Jay Cavanaugh, Ph.D.: California State Board of Pharmacy, 1980-90; Past Chairperson, Los Angeles County Research Evaluation and Advisory Panel (REAP) for chemical dependency treatment and prevention. Outpatient drug treatment caseworker, Los Angeles County Health Department 1970-73. AAMC founder.

For the Sake of the Children The Message of Medical Cannabis - Dr. Jay Cavanaugh, Ph.D., September 2002.

Anxiety Disorders. Neurobiology: Never fear, Cannabinoids are here - Pankaj Sah.

Cannabis and Depression, and Bipolar Disorder - Dr. Jay Canavnaugh, Ph.D.

Hepatitus C - The Silent Killer. Can Cannabis Help? - Dr. Jay Cahavanugh, Ph.D.

Landmark Studies

Special Committee on Illegal Drugs Report,
by the Canadian government in 2002.

The LeDain Commission Report,
by the Canadian government in 1970

The LaGuardia Report,
by the City of New York in 1944.

The Indian Hemp Drug Commission Report,
by The British government in 1894.

Something I wrote
that I really like.

Document Created: August 23, 2005, Content Last Revised: 2009
The pharmaceutical industry markets, sells and profits greatly from prescription drugs that, at best, mainly work in 30% to 50% of people and, at worst, actually contribute to hospitalization, permanent disability, disease, illness and death. Prescription drugs have killed more Americans than the entire Vietnam War and on a yearly basis.

According to the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA), prescription drugs are now the fourth leading medical cause of death in the U.S. and Canada, behind only cancer, heart disease, and stroke.

Allen Roses, of GlaxoSmithKline, is quoted in a national newspaper as saying more than 90% of drugs only work in 30-50% of people.
The top ten drug companies (which included European companies) had profits of nearly 25 percent of sales in 1990.

In 2001, the ten American drug companies in the Fortune 500 list ranked far above all other American industries in average net return, whether as a percentage of sales (18.5 percent), of assets (16.3 percent), or of shareholders’ equity (33.2 percent). These are astonishing margins. For comparison, the median net return for all other industries in the Fortune 500 was only 3.3 percent of sales. The most startling fact about 2002 is that the combined profits for the ten drug companies in the Fortune 500 ($35.9 billion) were more than the profits for all the other 490 businesses put together (33.7 billion).

Let me emphasize this again. The combined profits of the ten largest US drug companies reaches 35.9 billion - a sum higher than the combined profits for all other 490 corporations on the Fortune 500 List!
Prozac, the bestselling antidepressant taken by 40 million people worldwide, does not work and nor do similar drugs in the same class, according to a major review released today.

The study examined all available data on the drugs, including results from clinical trials that the manufacturers chose not to publish at the time. The trials compared the effect on patients taking the drugs with those given a placebo or sugar pill.

When all the data was pulled together, it appeared that patients had improved - but those on placebo improved just as much as those on the drugs.
Marijuana smoking -"even heavy longterm use"- does not cause cancer of the lung, upper airwaves, or esophagus, Donald Tashkin reported at this year's meeting of the International Cannabinoid Research Society...

All the odds ratios turned out to be less than one (one being equal to the control group's chances)! Compared with subjects who had used less than one joint year, the estimated odds ratios for lung cancer were .78; for 1-10 j-yrs, .74; for 10-30 j-yrs, .85 for 30-60 j-yrs; and 0.81 for more than 60 j-yrs. The estimated odds ratios for oral/pharyngeal cancers were 0.92 for 1-10 j-yrs; 0.89 for 10-30 j-yrs; 0.81 for 30-60 j-yrs; and 1.0 for more than 60 j-yrs. "Similar, though less precise results were obtained for the other cancer sites," Tashkin reported.
Nonmelanoma skin cancer is one of the most common malignancies in humans. Different therapeutic strategies for the treatment of these tumors are currently being investigated. Given the growth-inhibiting effects of cannabinoids on gliomas and the wide tissue distribution of the two subtypes of cannabinoid receptors (CB1 and CB2), we studied the potential utility of these compounds in anti–skin tumor therapy. Here we show that the CB1 and the CB2 receptor are expressed in normal skin and skin tumors of mice and humans. In cell culture experiments pharmacological activation of cannabinoid receptors induced the apoptotic death of tumorigenic epidermal cells, whereas the viability of nontransformed epidermal cells remained unaffected.
The term medical marijuana took on dramatic new meaning in February, 2000 when researchers in Madrid announced they had destroyed incurable brain tumors in rats by injecting them with THC, the active ingredient in cannabis.

The Madrid study marks only the second time that THC has been administered to tumor-bearing animals; the first was a Virginia investigation 26 years ago. In both studies, the THC shrank or destroyed tumors in a majority of the test subjects.

Most Americans don't know anything about the Madrid discovery. Virtually no major U.S. newspapers carried the story, which ran only once on the AP and UPI news wires, on Feb. 29, 2000.

The ominous part is that this isn't the first time scientists have discovered that THC shrinks tumors. In 1974 researchers at the Medical College of Virginia, who had been funded by the National Institute of Health to find evidence that marijuana damages the immune system, found instead that THC slowed the growth of three kinds of cancer in mice -- lung and breast cancer, and a virus-induced leukemia.
Treatment with a synthetic compound similar to marijuana reduced inflammation in older rats in addition to making the animals “smarter,” said Wenk, who is also a professor of neuroscience and molecular virology, immunology and medical genetics.

“The compound substantially improved the memories of the older rats,” he said. “These animals were able to hold on to key details of a specific task. Untreated older rats, on the other hand, were not.”

The researchers presented their findings October 18 in Atlanta at the annual Society for Neuroscience meeting.

Evidence suggests that people who regularly smoked marijuana in the 1960s and 1970s rarely develop Alzheimer's disease, said Wenk, adding that researchers are eager to develop a drug with the anti-inflammatory properties of marijuana, but without the drug's psychoactive effects.
Eli Lilly, Johnson & Johnson, and AstraZeneca have been making $2 billion a year selling useless pills to Alzheimer's patients (including almost a million Medicare "beneficiaries"). This is the bottom line of a study published this week in the New England Journal of Medicine that evaluated the effectiveness of Seroquel, Risperdal and Zyprexa, drugs known as "atypical antipsychotics," which are routinely prescribed to Alzheimer's patients. A group led by Lon Schneider, MD, at the University of Southern California School of Medicine found that 80% of Alzheimer's patients they studied stopped taking the drugs before the trial ended due to ineffectiveness and side-effects.

The study was funded by the National Institute of Mental Health, whose director, Thomas R. Insel, commented "We need to come up with better medications." Indeed -more than 4.5 million Americans have been diagnosed with Alzheimer's. Its environmental causes remain unknown (the fake food must factor in) and it is occurring with increasing frequency.

The rage associated with Alzheimer's is one of the conditions for which Oregon doctors can authorize cannabis use. Perhaps Dr. Insel should fund a study of its efficacy there -it's just a matter of collecting the data.
Need a Doctor?

In 1997, 39 new drugs were approved by the FDA. As of now (2002), five of them (Rezulin, Posicor, Duract, Raxar and Baycol) have been taken off the market and an additional two (Trovan, an antibiotic and Orgaran, an anticoagulant) have had new box warnings. Thus, seven drugs approved that year (18% of the 39 drugs approved) have already been withdrawn or had a black box warning in just four years after approval. Based on our study, 20% of drugs will be withdrawn or have a black box warning within 25 years of coming on the market. The drugs approved in 1997 have already almost “achieved” this in only four years--with 21 years to go. Another drug in this class, the weight reduction drug Meridia, was the subject of a petition from Public Citizen last month to remove it from the market because of cardiovascular toxicity serious enough to cause the FDA medical officer and its advisory committee to recommend it not be approved. more

These drugs are not only addictive but are tied by exhaustive scientific research to hostility and violence and, in some cases, murder and suicide.

The use of these drugs - on a dramatic rise amongst school children, particularly over the last two decades - is a primary factor in the creation of acts of random senseless violence among our youth. Indeed, while all manner of reasons have been offered for the recent rash of school shootings, the simple but frightening fact is that the rise of senseless violence in our schools is date coincident with, and directly tied to, the increased use of these prescribed mind altering, mood-changing drugs. read more

• Prozac
 – The BBC warns
 – The Guardian warns
 – Prozac, Suicide
   & Murder

• Serzone
• Zoloft
• Paxil
• Celexa
• Luvox

The DisHonor Roll
• Accolate
• Accutane
• Ativan
• Avandia
• Baycol
• Bextra
• Celebrex
• Cisapride
• Colchicine
• Cold-Eeze
• Crestor
• Cyclosporine
• Dexamethasone
• Drotrecogin
• Duract
• Enbrel
• Ephedra
• Fen Phen
• Foradil
• Herceptin
• Hismanal
• Lamictal
• Lamisil
• Lariam
• Lipitor
• Lotronex
• Lyrica
• Meridia
• Nevaprine
• Natrecor
• Norplant
• Neurontin
• Ortho Evra
• Oxycontin
• Palladone
• Podimin
• Posicor
• Prempro
• Procardia
• Propulsid
• Protopic
• Ramipril
• Raplon
• Raxar
• Redux
• Relenza
• Remicade
• Rezulin
• Resperdal
• Ritalin
• RotaShield
• RU-486
• Seldane
• Serentil
• Serevent
• Seroquel
• Simulect
• Symlin
• Tasmar
• Thalidomide
• Trazodone
 – Priapism
• Trovan
• Valium
• Vanceril
• Viagra
• Videx
• Viga
• Vioxx
• Viramune
• Xeloda
• Zerit
• Zyprexa

Tardive Dyskinesia
Tardive Dyskinesia is a disease caused only by pharmaceuticals

This condition is characterized by involuntary movements. These abnormal movements most often occur around the mouth. The disorder may range from mild to severe. For some people, it cannot be reversed, while others recover partially or completely. Features of the disorder may include grimacing, tongue protrusion, lip smacking, puckering and pursing, and rapid eye blinking. Rapid movements of the arms, legs, and trunk may also occur. Impaired movements of the fingers may appear as though the patient is playing an invisible guitar or piano.

Tardive dyskinesia is seen most often after long-term treatment with antipsychotic medications. There is a higher incidence in women, with the risk rising with age. There is no way to determine whether someone will develop this condition, and if it develops, whether the patient will recover. At present, there is no effective treatment for tardive dyskinesia. The possible risks of long-term treatment with antipsychotic medications must be weighed against the benefits in each individual case by patient, family, and doctor... read more

...In Psychiatric Drugs: Hazards to the Brain, psychiatrist Peter Breggin, M.D., says this: "The major tranquilizers are highly toxic drugs; they are poisonous to various organs of the body. They are especially potent neurotoxins, and frequently produce permanent damage to the brain. ...tardive dyskinesia can develop in low-dose, short-term usage...the dementia [loss of higher mental functions] associated with the tardive dyskinesia is not usually versible. ... Seldom have I felt more saddened or more dismayed than by psychiatry's neglect of the evidence that it is causing irreversible lobotomy effects, psychosis, and dementia in millions of patients as a result of treatment with the major tranquilizers" (op. cit., pp.70, 107, 135, 146)... more

Akathisia is a frequent and common adverse effect of treatment with antipsychotic (neuroleptic) drugs. This syndrome consists of subjective (feeling of inner restlessness and the urge to move) as well as objective components (rocking while standing or sitting, lifting feet as if marching on the spot and crossing and uncrossing the legs while sitting). Reported prevalence rates vary widely between 5 and 36.8%. Numerous risk factors for acute akathisia have been described and the exact pathophysiology of akathisia is still unknown. Since akathisia is a drug-induced adverse effect, optimal management involves its prevention rather than treatment. Evidence on the treatment of tardive akathisia is unsatisfactory. more

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