Breast Cancer

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Breast Cancer

Postby palmspringsbum » Tue Dec 18, 2007 9:39 pm

Science Daily wrote:Marijuana Compound Shows Promise In Fighting Breast Cancer

Science Daily
November 26th, 2007


A compound found in cannabis may prove to be effective at helping stop the spread of breast cancer cells throughout the body.

The study, by scientists at the California Pacific Medical Center Research Institute, is raising hope that CBD, a compound found in Cannabis sativa, could be the first non-toxic agent to show promise in treating metastatic forms of breast cancer.

“Right now we have a limited range of options in treating aggressive forms of cancer,” says Sean D. McAllister, Ph.D., a cancer researcher at CPMCRI and the lead author of the study. “Those treatments, such as chemotherapy, can be effective but they can also be extremely toxic and difficult for patients. This compound offers the hope of a non-toxic therapy that could achieve the same results without any of the painful side effects.”

The researchers used CBD to inhibit the activity of a gene called Id-1, which is believed to be responsible for the aggressive spread of cancer cells throughout the body, away from the original tumor site.

“We know that Id-1 is a key regulator of the spread of breast cancer,” says Pierre-Yves Desprez, Ph.D., a cancer researcher at CPMCRI and the senior author of the study. “We also know that Id-1 has also been found at higher levels in other forms of cancer. So what is exciting about this study is that if CBD can inhibit Id-1 in breast cancer cells, then it may also prove effective at stopping the spread of cancer cells in other forms of the disease, such as colon and brain or prostate cancer.”

However, the researchers point out that while their findings are promising they are not a recommendation for people with breast cancer to smoke marijuana. They say it is highly unlikely that effective concentrations of CBD could be reached by smoking cannabis. And while CBD is not psychoactive it is still considered a Schedule 1 drug.

This study was recently published in the journal Molecular Cancer Therapeutics.

The study was primarily funded by the California Breast Cancer Research Program.
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Marijuana Compound May Stop Breast Cancer From Spreading

Postby palmspringsbum » Tue Dec 18, 2007 9:52 pm

Fox News wrote:Marijuana Compound May Stop Breast Cancer From Spreading, Study Says

Fox News
November 19th, 2007


<span class=postbold>A compound found in cannabis may stop breast cancer from spreading throughout the body, according to a new study by scientists at California Pacific Medical Center Research Institute. The researchers are hopeful that the compound called CBD, which is found in cannabis sativa, could be a non-toxic alternative to chemotherapy.</span>

Click here to read more about this study

"Right now we have a limited range of options in treating aggressive forms of cancer," said lead researcher Dr. Sean D. McAllister, a cancer researcher at CPMCRI, in a news release. "Those treatments, such as chemotherapy, can be effective but they can also be extremely toxic and difficult for patients. This compound offers the hope of a non-toxic therapy that could achieve the same results without any of the painful side effects."

The researchers tested CBD to inhibit the activity of a gene called Id-1, which is believed to be responsible for the aggressive spread of cancer cells throughout the body, away from the original tumor site.

"We know that Id-1 is a key regulator of the spread of breast cancer," said Dr. Pierre-Yves Desprez, a cancer researcher at CPMCRI and the senior author of the study, in a news release. "We also know that Id-1 has also been found at higher levels in other forms of cancer. So what is exciting about this study is that if CBD can inhibit Id-1 in breast cancer cells, then it may also prove effective at stopping the spread of cancer cells in other forms of the disease, such as colon and brain or prostate cancer."


Comparing it with another ingredient isolated from marijuana called THC, which is used in some medical treatments, the researchers said CBD does not have any psychoactive properties, so using it would not violate any state or federal laws. However, the researchers stressed that they are not suggesting that breast cancer patients smoke marijuana. They say it is highly unlikely that effective concentrations of CBD could be reached by smoking pot.

The study is published in the latest issue of the journal Molecular Cancer Therapeutics
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Postby palmspringsbum » Thu Dec 27, 2007 6:58 pm

California Pacific Medical Center wrote:Sean D. McAllister, Ph.D.
Email: Mcallis@cpmcri.org
California Pacific Medical Center

<span class=postbigbold>Introduction </span>

Our research team is studying the potential of the endocannabinoid system to control cell fate with the goal of developing therapeutic interventions for aggressive cancers. This newly discovered biological system can be regulated by many different classes of cannabinoid compounds that work through specific cellular receptors. The cloned cannabinoid receptors have been termed cannabinoid 1 (CB1) and (CB2).

∆9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), a mixed CB1 and CB2 receptor agonist, is the primary active constituent of Cannabis sativa and is currently being used in a clinical trial for the treatment of aggressive recurrent glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). Cannabinoids are also being used in clinical trials for purposes unrelated to their direct anticancer activity. The compounds have been reported to be well tolerated during chronic oral and systemic administration. In addition to Δ9-THC, cannabidiol (CBD), cannabinol (CBN) and cannabigerol (CBG) are also present in reasonable quantities in Cannabis. CBN has low affinity for CB1 and CB2 receptors, whereas the non-psychotropic cannabinoids, CBD and CBG, have negligible affinity for the cloned receptors. We have determined that these additional cannabinoids are also effective and inhibiting aggressive cancers. Importantly, we have discovered in vitro that a synergistic increase in the antiproliferative and apoptotic activity of cannabinoids can be produced by combining specific ratios of CB1 and CB2 receptors agonists with non-psychotropic cannabinoids.

We are currently determining the molecular mechanism that may explain the synergistic increase in anticancer activity that is observed with the combination treatments. We are also studying whether this combination strategy will lead to greater antitumor activity in vivo.

In addition to the combination therapy project, we are working in collaboration with Dr. Pierre Desprez to develop novel inhibitors of Id-1 using cannabinoid compounds. Id-1 is a helix-loop-helix protein that acts as an inhibitor of basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors that control cell differentiation, development and carcinogenesis. Past research of Id-1 expression in normal and cancerous breast cells, as well as in mouse mammary glands and in human breast cancer biopsies, demonstrated that increased Id-1 expression was associated with a proliferative and invasive phenotype. Specifically, it was found that Id-1 was constitutively expressed at a high level in aggressive breast cancer cells and human biopsies, and that aggressiveness was reverted in vitro and in vivo when Id-1 expression was targeted using antisense technology. Importantly, we have recently discovered that CBD, a nontoxic cannabinoid that lacks psychoactivity, can inhibit Id-1 gene expression in metastatic breast cancer cells and consequently their aggressive phenotype. The down-regulation of expression was the result of the inhibition of the endogenous Id-1 promoter and corresponding mRNA and protein levels. CBD and compounds based off of its structure can therefore potentially be used as therapeutic agents. CBD also inhibits breast cancer metastasis in vivo.

Based off of our recent findings, we are currently involved in 1) developing novel CBD analogs for the treat of aggressive breast cancers 2) discovering the detailed mechanisms through which cannabinoid compounds regulate Id-1 expression.

<span class=postbigbold>Publications </span>


McAllister, S.D. , Christian, R.T., Horowitz, M.P., Garcia, A. and Desprez. P (2007). Cannabidiol as a novel inhibitor of Id-1 gene expression in aggressive breast cancer cells. Molecular Cancer Therapeutics 6 (11): 2921-2927, November 1, 2007

McAllister, S.D., Chan, C., Taft, R.J., Luu, T., Abood, M.E., Moore, D.H., Aldape, K., Yount, G. (2005) Cannabinoids selectively inhibit proliferation and induce death of cultured human glioblastoma multiforme cells. Journal of Neuro-Oncology (74):31-40

McAllister, S.D. and Abood, M.E. (2005) Endocannabinoids and intracellular signalling. In Endocannabinoids: The Brain and Body’s Marijuana and Beyond. Ed: Onaivi, E. Taylor and Francis Books, New Fetter Lane, London.

McAllister, S.D., Hurst, D.P., Barnett-Norris, J., Lynch, D., Reggio, P.H., and Abood, M.E. (2004) Structural mimicry in class A GPCR rotamer toggle switches: the importance of the F3.36(201)/W6.48(357) interaction in cannabinoid CB1 receptor activation. Journal of Biological Chemistry Nov 12;279(46):48024-37

McAllister, S.D., Rizvi G., Hurst, D.P., Barnett-Norris, J., Lynch, D., Reggio, P.H., Abood, M.E. (2003) An Aromatic Microdomain at the Cannabinoid CB1 Receptor Constitutes an Agonist/Inverse Agonist Binding Region. Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. Nov 20; 46(24): 5139-52.

McAllister, S.D. and Glass, M. (2002) CB1 and CB2 receptor-mediated signaling: a focus on endocannabinoids. In Endocannabinoids in the Third Millennium: From Chemistry to Medicine. Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes & Essential Fatty Acids. 66(2-3): 161-71

Glass, M. and McAllister, S.D. (2002) Cannabinoid mediated signal transduction. In The Biology of Marijuana: From Gene to Behavior. Ed: Onaivi, E. Harwood Academic Publishers, Reading, UK.
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